Órbita

¿Salida al mar para Chile o Bolivia?

¿Salida al mar para Chile o Bolivia? Bolivia reclama salida al mar

Inicia Órbita esta semana buscando qué pasa en el mundo hoy. Nepal sigue en el centro de la atención, y alguno que otro volcán también se roba miradas. Baltimore, y ahora New York, se lanzan a las calles contra el racismo. Sin embargo, en un diario boliviano, algo advierte mi atención: esta semana toma auge el conflicto fronterizo entre Bolivia y Chile ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) en La Haya.

En una rueda de prensa realizada en Santa Cruz de la Sierra, el vicepresidente del país andino, Álvaro García Linera, descartaba la posibilidad de movidas políticas a la antigua cuando expresaba: “Estamos tan seguros y por eso no utilizamos muletillas de carácter político para garantizar la solidez de nuestro planteamiento ante la Corte Internacional de La Haya”.

A partir de hoy y hasta el 8 de mayo, los gobiernos de Chile y Bolivia presentarán sus argumentos de manera oral a propósito de la demanda planteada por Bolivia en relación con la reintegración marítima. Este gobierno presentó en 2013 cargos al chileno para recuperar una salida al Pacífico y algunos territorios ricos en minerías que Bolivia perdió en 1879 como resultado de la Guerra del Pacífico y del Tratado de Paz de 1904. La historia de esta demanda se alza nuevamente en abril de 2014 cuando el presidente de Bolivia, Evo Morales Ayma, presenta la memoria de la demanda ante la CIJ y en noviembre el gobierno de la Paz presenta a Chile los alegatos contra la objeción chilena de la pertinencia de la demanda.

Bolivia pretende, a través de este nuevo movimiento jurídico, que la CIJ de la Haya acepte y reconozca que los representantes de ambos países han llegado a un punto de otorgar los derechos expectaticios que se relacionan con la costumbre internacional de generación de derechos resultantes del comportamiento de los estados, tales como las promesas y las declaraciones unilaterales.1Desde que se inició la demanda, la postura chilena ha sido la de respetar los resultados del Tratado de Paz que delimitó la frontera entre ambos territorios nacionales y una supuesta vía de acceso al mar para Bolivia.

Sondeos de opinión que incluyen desde encuestas a legisladores hasta la población en general, denotan un marcado pesimismo en los resultados para el gobierno chileno, pues afirman que la CIJ fallará en favor de Bolivia. Sin embargo, la presidenta de Chile, Michelle Bachelet, sostuvo importantes reuniones de trabajo con la mira puesta a lo que inicia hoy en La Haya. En un primer momento, la mandataria ha revisado los alegatos y se reunió con los presidentes del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados de Chile, Patricio Walker y Marco Antonio Nuñez, quienes acompañan el proceso legal al cual se enfrenta el gobierno de la Bachelet. La postura chilena es la de poder desarrollar obligaciones legales a partir de los tratados nacionales de los estados firmantes. Teme mucho a la llegada de un punto muerto y a la falta de capacidad de negociación de ambos países.

Mientras el pesimismo se apodera de los chilenos respecto a este caso, el panorama boliviano es bien distinto. García Linera aseguró, además, que Bolivia irá a la presentación de los alegatos “muy confiada, porque apela a la historia, al derecho y a los procedimientos internacionales de justicia” actualmente vigentes. “No cabe duda —continuó— que hay un nivel de superioridad jurídica, legal, histórica y moral en nuestro planteamiento”.

El equipo jurídico boliviano, liderado por el agente ante la CIJ, el expresidente Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé, está conformado por seis abogados internacionalistas (Antonio Remiro Brotóns, Mathias Forteau, Monique Chemiller-Gendreau, Payam Akhavan, Vaughan Lowe y Amy Sander). A ellos acompañarán: el presidente del Senado, Carlos Alberto Gonzales y de la Cámara de Diputados, Gabriela Montaño, así como el canciller David Choquehuanca.

Hace una semana, el presidente boliviano, Evo Morales Ayma, insistía ante los medios de prensa internacionales, en que su gobierno respetará cualquier decisión que tome el tribunal internacional de La Haya. “Si Bolivia ha acudido al tribunal internacional de justicia de La Haya es justamente para respetar (sus decisiones) y reconocemos una institución creada por la humanidad, una institución internacional para resolver de manera pacífica las controversias que tienen los países del mundo".

Mucho se ha dicho de esta controversia jurídica. Lo  cierto es que nuevamente un tribunal internacional tiene en sus manos la solución del conflicto. Los hechos precedentes aquí están expuestos y solo nos queda esperar.

Una cronología reciente

2013

24 de abril: el gobierno de Bolivia inició formalmente, ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia, la presentación de una demanda para solicitar a Chile la negociación de una salida soberana al mar.

2014

15 de abril: El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia presentó su memoria.

29 de abril: el expresidente de Bolivia, Carlos Mesa, fue designado como representante internacional de la causa marítima. Su tarea es explicar las motivaciones y pormenores de la demanda boliviana frente a organismos multilaterales y gobiernos de todos los países del mundo.

23 de mayo: el canciller chileno expresa la posibilidad de cuestionar la competencia de la Corte Internacional de Justicia de La Haya ante la demanda por acceso al mar planteada por Bolivia.

7 de julio: la presidenta chilena dio a conocer la decisión de impugnar la competencia del Tribunal de La Haya, a través de la red voluntaria de radio y televisión.

15 de julio: Chile presentó la impugnación all presentar los documentos que sobre la incompetencia de la Corte Internacional de Justicia en el caso de la demanda boliviana.

7 de noviembre: Bolivia presentó la respuesta a la excepción de Chile.

2015

 4 al 6 de mayo: Chile presentará sus alegatos.

 7 al 8 de mayo: Bolivia presentará alegatos.

 

Notas

1 Bolivia ha basado estas conclusiones de derecho internacional en los hechos relacionados con Australia y Nueva Zelanda contra Francia debido a la no ejecución de los pagos por los nurvos enesayos nucleares de atolón Mururoa. De igual manera los hechos del caso de Groenlandia Oriental de 1933 ante laCPJI conatituyen un antecedente.

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